Basic classifications which can be used to categorise fabrics:
According to similar appearance: Lambskin, Bouclé - Curl
According to material: Lambswool, Mohair, Cheviot
According to yarn or twine: Mouliné, Crêpe, Vigoureux
According to weave: Linen, Twill, Satin, Panama
According to weaving technique: Jacquard, Shaft Pattern
According to finish: Unfulled Woollen Cloth, Flannel
According to origin: Tyrolean loden, Irish Tweed, Plaid
According to intended use: Behördentuch (German for woollen cloth for public authorities)
According to famous wearers: Stresemann, Prince de Galles
In addition, there are the multitude of terms that have been adopted from other languages and cultures that have become textile colloquialisms,
e.g. Glen Check or Tartan from Scottish/Gaelic, bouclé, Changeant or Foulé from French.
Evening Dress Fabrics
Collection of all materials used for evening or festive events, mainly silk and wool in various weight categories.
Cotton with a weight running up to approx. 200 g per metre.
From a running metre weight of approx. 200 g up to technical fabrics. ??????
Fine, densely woven, plain-weave cotton fabric. Batiste is available raw, dyed, or printed on. Its appearance is always matte. A subtle, wash-resistant sheen is achieved and the stability is increased by mercerising.
Almost all base fabrics are coated, either by application of chemicals or with film. These can be coloured or transparent. For technical (water-repellent, oil-repellent, flame-retardant) or fashion (sheen/glitter) reasons. Also, as primer for embossing.
Flocking is usually done like a printing process, with stencils or over the entire surface. Superfine synthetic pieces of fibre are applied to a specially prepared base and fixed with glue. Abrasion properties are limited and most flocks cannot be cleaned because the glue can come off.
Bi-Elastic fabrics possess elasticity in both warp and weft direction. The base materials can be diverse. Due to its own high elasticity wool is the best base material in combination with the natural fibre. ??????????2nd sentence?????????
Lightweight fabrics of all material compositions up to 130 g/rm, plain, colour-woven and printed.
Bark Crêpe WV CO
The look of bark crêpe is usually achieved by the finish. By using yarns with different twists in warp and weft, the bark-like fabric structure is obtained after washing. In wool fabrics, the look can also be achieved via the weave and the use of different yarns.
Name for both fabric and a type of fancy yarn. Bouclé (French for curly) is a relatively coarse-threaded fancy ply yarn with a very distinct loop. Bouclé fabrics are available with various weaves and in different weight categories, yarn- or piece-dyed.
Bouclé coating can also be found as torn or napped bouclé.
Wedding Gown / Bridal Fabrics
All types of fabrics/material that are used for bridal, such as silks of all weight categories and styles, lace, tulle, etc.
Extensively patterned Jacquard fabrics are usually termed as brocades. Usually satin-based woven in silk or synthetic yarn (acetate/viscose) enriched with lurex or metal threads.
Cady WV SE
Silk or wool fabric without weave pattern. In the case of wool, very smooth shorn out look. Silk cady is a medium-weight article for dresses or skirt suits.
Relatively heavy cotton fabric with a coarse-grained look made from coarse yarns.
Worsted and woollen yarn fabrics in pure cashmere. Mainly made from woollen yarn and used for elegant jacket and coat fabrics. Natural or piece-dyed, also as colour-woven fabric.
Also made from the finest worsted yarn for elegant suiting in high-quality menswear.
The expression "Chanel Tweed" is trademarked by Chanel. It is generally used to describe a fabric appearance with a soft, voluminous structure that is achieved by using fancy yarns like bouclé, moiré, nap tweed, chenille, and metallic yarns.
Changéant is a fabric with very different colours in warp and weft. Depending on the incidence of light and the angle of vision the fabric has a changing (iridescent) look. Changeant is particularly elegant in fine materials such as chiffon or silk taffeta. There’s also Changéant in lining material (e.g. acetate/viscose) and in wool or wool/mohair blends as well, but these are more rare.
A coarse, rustic woollen fabric originally woven from Cheviot wool that is primarily used for men's sports jackets, similar to Harris Tweed.
General term for sport fabrics in herringbone weave/look for sports jackets and coats, particularly common in men's outerwear.
Velvet-like fabric that has a weft made of woven yarn. The required yarn for this purpose (called pre-fabric) is first woven with special weaves, then cut in warp direction. It is later slightly twisted creating its voluminous, hairy characteristics and soft feel.
Chiffon SE PES
Very fine, veil-like crêpe fabrics in plain weave are called chiffon. Used for blouses, evening gowns, and shawls.
The chintz effect can be achieved through mechanical treatment by calendering (not permanent) or with the aid of chemicals (synthetic resins). The latter is permanent even after washing.
Cloqué is a Jacquard double fabric, in which the upper and lower fabric are either made from differently high-twisted yarns or from differing materials. During the finishing, the components then shrink to a different degree creating the relief-like appearance.
A weft velvet, in which the rib is created by the additional pile weft. The subsequent cutting open of the pile loops is carried out by a rotating blade. Depending on the width of the wales, a distinction is made between needle and babycord, narrow-wale corduroy, Genoa and wide-wale corduroy.
Corduroy velvets with varying wale width are called fancycord.
Originally made from pure cotton, today they exist in many material blends; e.g. with modal fibre, viscose or polyester, and nowadays, often elastic with elastane.
Cotelé WV CO
A fine vertically-ribbed look related to corduroy, created by a special weave. Made from fine-threaded wool or cotton.
A hard-wearing, high-density fabric with a steep-angled twill; usually made using mouliné or mélange yarns.
The characteristic feature of all crêpe variations is the use of highly twisted yarns with different directions of twist. This gives the fabric its grainy feel, extraordinary elasticity and bounce. The appearance is determined by the alternating z and s-twists of the yarns and also by the weave. For reasons dependent on dyeing technology, crêpe articles are almost exclusively piece-dyed articles.
Crêpe de Chine
In the case of Crêpe de Chine, raw silk yarns (i.e. untwisted silk filaments) are used in the warp and highly-twisted crêpe yarns, alternately as s- and z-twists in the weft. This creates the premium crêpe feel and the agitated structure in the finish.
Crêpe Georgette SE WV
One of the most common crêpe variations. Often with lower warp to increase weight and with excellent wearing properties.
Fabric made from copper acetate yarns, with particularly lovely colouring; used primarily as lining material.
Particularly hard-wearing, strong cotton fabric with or without elastane in warp and/or weft. Normally the warp is dyed, e.g. indigo blue, and the weft is white. The classic denim.
Semi-transparent effect in fabrics of chemically differently reacting fabrics, e.g. silk/viscose, silk/polyester.
The effect is usually achieved by imprint (local exposure to chemicals followed by heating up and thus burning out of fibre material).
Named after the Irish county, a usually bi-coloured tweed with small slubs, made of a linen weave with a light warp and dark weft.
Doubleface (Reversible) and Double Fabric
Technically, doubleface is a fabric with two fabric layers that are connected via binding, layer interchange, binding warp or binding weft. With these tecniques, both a greater weight and a differing look on each side can be achieved.
It provides the possibility of having two different colours on each side of the fabric and/or the combination of patterned and plain possible.
In the case of "real" doubleface, the sides can be separated, thus allowing the doubleface process visible. Doubleface is produced in all combinations of materials and weight categories, mostly as voluminous woollen yarns for coats.
The almost exclusively piece-dyed woollen yarn articles exhibit an elegant, matte sheen that is produced by a fine, close-fitting nap finish. Often blended with virgin wool and premium animal hair; the luxury version also, e.g., with pure cashmere.
It is possible to print on almost all base materials. Depending on material, quantity and technical requirements, the following possibilities exist:
Stencils or screen-printing In this technique, the fabric is printed on a 40 m printing table with stencils. This technique can be used for almost all base materials, but is also the most elaborate and expensive. Limited to up to 24 colours. Time-consuming.
Roller printing In roller printing, the desired pattern is engraved on rotating rollers that print with high speed and precision. Because of the high-base costs, this only pays off for large quantities.
Transfer printing In transfer printing, heat and pressure are used to transfer the pattern onto the base material. However, this is only possible on synthetic materials, especially polyester.
Ink-jet printing Similar to the computer printers; prints can be printed on all materials in an unlimited number of colours across the entire fabric width. It is used primarily for smaller quantities or for very colourful prints, as it is relatively expensive. Has the advantage that no elaborate production of printing templates or rollers is required. Also, a time advantage in patterning.
Satin fabrics made of silk or silk/viscose blends with very high warp thread density. They have an elegant, mat sheen and a slightly crisp feel. Used for evening wear, facings for smokings or ties.
Fil à Fil (End-on-End)
Also known as Salt-and-Pepper since it has one light and one dark thread in warp and weft in combination with the twill 2/2 weave result in the typical heathered effect, which runs contrary to the twill of the weave (so from bottom right to top left).
Herringbone WV CO
Broken twill, in which the diagonal line in the warp repeat is interrupted and continues in the opposite direction. This is then repeated in the total pattern repeat in optionally varying widths.
Flannel is one of the most important virgin wool textiles. The classic flannel is made from pure woollen yarn; articles made with a worsted warp and woollen yarn weft are common. The soft, supple feel of flannels is obtained during the fulling of the fine merino wools. The soft-twisted, largely mottled yarns are usually twill-woven.
Baize is produced with coarser woollen yarns with a relatively open yarn twist, stock- or piece-dyed. The surface results from raising the nap of the fabric. In contrast to velour, it is more open and tousled in appearance.
A heavily napped fabric with a tousled surface mostly made of synthetic material combinations, arrased or woven.
Classic men's outerwear fabric made from very fine high-twist, multiple ply worsted yarn. The linen weave favours the vitreous, dry feel of this airy breathable fabric with high wear resistance.
Terry fabrics exhibit loops on one or both textile sides that are produced on special looms with three-thread systems.
This fabric has loops (on one or both sides) that are cut open; it obtains its plush-like, velvety surface through extensive washing and shearing.
General term for fabrics with specific characteristics for various areas of use. From high-tech sportswear items to flame-retardant or waterproof fabrics.
The most important lining materials are made of viscose, acetate or a mixture of these two materials. However, for some sectors they are also made of polyester (functional wear).
Stretch Lining Material (Elastic)
Due to the steadily increasing use of elastic fabrics in all sectors, lining materials with predominantly elastic weft material (mostly viscose-based with elastane) are being produced on a large scale.
Gabardine CO / WV
Garbardine is a fine-threaded, densely set fabric for almost all areas of use. Its characteristic feature is the delicate, clear steep rib at a 60-degree angle. "Real" gabardine is the even-sided twill 2/2 which shows a twill on both sides.
Made from fine worsted yarns or cotton yarns, it is produced almost exclusively piece-dyed. In order to obtain a clear fabric appearance, it is very deeply shorn out in the finishing.
In case of the lighter summer gabardine, the twill 2/1 is used. The reverse side of the fabric does not exhibit a twill. Due to its construction, it is slightly lighter in weight and also slightly more prone to crease. Crêpe yarn in the weft is used in very fine processes in order to make the feel grainier and improve wearing properties.
A piece-dyed, ladies' outerwear fabric with a pileless finishing made mostly from fine worsted yarns and partly from crêpe yarns. The grainy weave pattern, similar to little pearls, without twill lines is characteristic. Great wearing properties.
Habutai / Pongé
Finest silk taffeta made from slightly twisted filaments only. Areas of use are lightweight dresses and blouses. Also used as lining material for high-quality evening wear or as base material for printing.
Fabrics made of cotton or union fabric for shirts and blouses, plain or colour-woven, with shaft or Jacquard pattern, up to approx. 120 g/rm.
Jacquard SE / CO / WV
Jacquard fabrics have extensive patterns with large repeatitions that are produced on the weaving machine invented by the Frenchman J.M. Jacquard (1752-1834). The distinctive shed formation (already controlled by punch cards at the time, just like the first computer) makes the raising and lowering of single threads within certain repeats possible and with it, almost unlimited patterning possibilities. Almost all types of fibres and yarns can be used. Typical jacquard textiles are:
Matelassé, Piqué and Brocade
Japanese Fabric Qualities
Japan is home to a highly developed textile industry. Japanese suppliers are leading in all types of fibres. Furthermore, many new technical developments in the chemical fibre sector come from Japan. Japan has a unique position in Triacetate fabrics and above all with Jersey articles.
Also see Denim. Denim is the classic jean article. However, apart from denim there are a multitude of cotton or cotton blend fabrics as piece-dyed articles with a high percentage of bi- or mono-stretch with elastane.
Single jersey is derived from the hand knitting technique. All stitches of one row are made from the same thread. On one side only the knit stitches are visible and on the other side, only the purl stitches. Mostly made of pure cotton, but also viscose, polyester and various blends. Can also be used as base material for printing.
Double Jersey (Fine Rib)
Contrary to single jersey, this fabric has two "right" sides and is produced exclusively on circular knitting machines. Plain or with horizontal stripes, smooth or with structure.
Interlock jersey is denser, heavier and has much less stretch than other jerseys. Both sides look the same. The stable structure ensures that the fabric does not curl up.
Jersey Punto Milano
Punta di Milano is a double-knit fabric (a combination of flat knit with rib knit) and elastic in length and width (bi-stretch). This bi-elastic fabric ensures a perfect fit and provides a high-level of wearing comfort.
An airy, loosely set cotton fabric in plain weave. The yarn that is used is slightly moiré and appears a little raw.
A classic men's article with flannel base. The effect of the slightly smudged appearance of the fabric, which looks as though it has chalk stripes, is obtained by washing and fulling.
Faux (Vegan) Fur
Fur imitation made on a woven or knitted base, either as rough faux fleece or with a smooth, velour-like shorn out look. Also available with Jacquard pattern or print.
Llama / Alpaca
See Non-Woven fabrics.
??????? Leather / Faux (Vegan) Leather ?????both vegan and real leather????
Faux leather exists in many variations. On coated base materials or even as vegan leather.
Linen / Linen Blends
See Non-Woven fabrics.
Loden is originally a coarse, tightly-fulled wool textile that offered people in the Alpine regions protection from the harsh winter weather. It is typically a woollen yarn quality, finished as melton cloth or densely-fulled woollen cloth (Strichloden). Practically always made from mélange yarns, mostly in shades of green, blue or brown.
To this day it is still very popular in the Alps for skirt suits, traditional jackets and coats.
The loop yarn is the most pronounced of all loop twines, almost always with a high percentage of mohair. It is always used in the weft of the fabric, because it is too voluminous for the warp. Loop is a thick, voluminous coat textile, yarn- or piece-dyed. Napped loops (as coating) are even more voluminous.
Lurex is always used in combination with other yarns. Lurex is a non-oxidising metallic ribbon on an aluminium base. It is ribbon-shaped, consisting of aluminium foil and a laminated, structured protective film that is produced in all common colours as shiny, matte or iridescent. Greatly compromises the slide resistance of fabrics thanks to its structure. Causes a certain streakiness.
Lycra Various Blends
See Non-Woven fabrics.
See Non-Woven fabrics.
A heavy, but soft-flowing silk fabric. Raw silk yarns are used in the warp and crêpe yarns in the weft. The look shows a fine horizontal rib. Luxury silk quality for dresses and skirt suits, including evening wear.
A relief-like double fabric made from different materials in both warp and weft. A structured fabric surface that looks padded is created by figurative binding of the thicker weft yarn. Silk in combination with fine worsted yarns or cotton are used. Fancy yarns like lurex are also used. Plain, colour-woven or with print.
In French it means: "Stock-dyed", i.e. made from yarns that were dyed in wool or fibre and then blended in the production process. Actually a yarn denomination, the term is used for many qualities in ladies' and men's outerwear, especially for flannels.
Can be extremely fine, pure metal threads or Lurex, which creates a similar effect. Metal threads are round, lurex is ribbon-shaped. Difficult to work with, because both are very smooth and therefore not very slip-resistant.
Mesh / Net / Tulle
Net-like fabrics, knits that have a net-like structure; sometimes also with Jacquard pattern. Mesh is a term usually used for synthetic materials, primarily used in sportswear. Tulle is used in ladies' outerwear, in the form of anything from simple cotton tulle to the most elaborate silk tulles, combined with paillettes or lurex..
Term for dessins with small patterns and weaves, especially in men's outerwear.
On silk, this effect is created on fabrics with a repetitive structure by partially flattening the binding points with the aid of 2 rollers working above each other. This creates special light effects that give the fabric a wavy pattern, which looks similar to woodgrain. They are sensitive to moisture and the effect is not very permanent.
Calander rollers with patterns emboss the effect on the surface and take advantage of the melting point properties of the material while doing so. These effects are almost permanent.
The pinstripe is a classic pattern for men's suits. This stripe on fine-threaded worsted fabrics, which looks as though it has been stitched with a needle, is obtained by the use of an even finer, contrasting silk or synthetic yarn.
The foamed vulcanisate is bonded on polyamide/lycra.
By using chemical propellants which set gases free under the temperature of vulcanisation, it is possible to obtain a pressure-resistant foam rubber, more specifically, sponged rubber with excellent insulating properties.
In foamed neoprene, small gas bubbles are evenly spread out giving it excellent thermal isolating properties. This variation is best known for wetsuits used in water sports (diving suits, surfing wetsuits).
Untreated Cotton Cloth
Collective term for tabby-weave raw fabrics of varying fineness, straight off the loom, without finish..
A shorn loop plush. The grey fabric is shorn during the finishing. Here, the loops are cut open creating a velvet-like appearance. It is available as plain or striped fabric or as a base for printing.
See Non-Woven fabrics.
Fine tabby-weave cotton fabric that stays permanently stiff and transparent due to its special finish. The effect is considerably reduced through washing.
Sheer, transparent taffeta fabrics made from organzine thread that has not been degummed are called organza. Due to the sericin that has not been removed, the fabrics have a crisp feel and slightly rough surface.
Ottoman CO / WV
Ottoman is a horizontally ribbed worsted fabric made of wool or cotton. It is available with ribs of different sizes. Almost always piece-dyed. Due to the weave, the slip resistance is not good. Hence, it is not suitable for trousers.
Mostly bi-coloured woven, porous cotton fabric. Normally the warp is coloured and the weft is white; available as tabby or panama weave.
Paillettes are made almost exclusively of plastic materials. They are usually made of a transparent plastic body, a metallic gloss coating and an additional topcoat lacquer. Depending on the colour of the top coat, different colour effects can be achieved.
Paillettes are resistant to washing, only F, they are, however, solvent- and temperature-sensitive. In the finished fabric, they should only be lightly ironed from the reverse side.
For some time now, there are also paillettes made entirely of plastic for which transfer printing can be used.
Typical print or Jacquard fabric of Indian or Persian origin. Motifs are the teardrop-shaped pointed leaf with recurved tip and scattered flower décor. Plain or colour-woven or as print on many materials.
Panama WV / CO
Multi-threaded plain/linen weave or panama weave made from fine yarns result in a porous, slightly structured fabric.
Warp pattern with alternating satin stripes and chiffon base. A very elegant, but also very delicate fabric. For blouses but also shawls, plain or as a base for printing.
Pattern denomination for a small pattern on twill 2/2 base in the colouring 4 light, 4 dark, classic in black and white. Bigger patterning is also called houndstooth.
A smooth fine cotton fabric, plain, with print or embroidered for blouses.
Cotton piqué is a double fabric with a quilt effect with a structured surface similar to matelassé.
These woollen fabrics with large patterns are fulled and then napped short or long depending on their designated use. Originally used as inner lining, today these fabrics are used as inexpensive, fashionable coating.
Cotton poplin is a fine plain-woven fabric which obtains its silk-like sheen through mercerising. It is also woven as faconné (with small woven in patterns). The elegant full poplin fabrics are made from fine twine in warp and weft. Twine poplin is made with twine in the warp and single yarn in the weft.
Single poplin is made with single yarn in warp and weft.
Wool poplin is a linen-woven article with high warp thread density and low weft thread density. This results in a fine horizontal rib. These extremely fine-threaded summer fabrics are always piece-dyed.
The elegant full poplin fabrics are made from fine twine in warp and weft. Twine poplin is made with twine in the warp and single yarn in the weft. Single poplin is made with single yarn in warp and weft.
Silk is also used to produce poplin fabrics. These are very dense, compact fabrics which have a fine horizontal rib structure, due to varying density settings in warp and weft as well as varying yarns.
Embossing requires a base material with a thermoplastic surface in order to be permanent. With the aid of calender rollers, in which the pattern has been engraved, the pattern is embossed with pressure and heat. Embossing is also done on leather. Here, however, the effect only has limited durability.
Warp-knitted fabrics for many purposes can be produced on the Raschel machine. Limited patterning possibilities. Rarely for outerwear, mostly for curtains, shawls, scarves, lace and hosiery.
Rep WV CO SE
Collective term for all fabrics with ribs, both horizontally and vertically striped.
Collective term for fabrics with a cut fibre pile that is taller than the fabric used as a base. A distinction is made between warp pile weave (real velvet/velour), weft pile weave (velveteen) and warp-knitted velvet (warp knit). All variations in pure cotton or in CO/PES, CO/VI blends, very often elastic with lycra.
For warp pile weave there is a rod weaving technique, rod-woven velvet. The pile is created by two warps. The pile warp is arched up by inserted steel rods. After weaving the pile warp into the base fabric, the rod is pulled out and, in the process, cuts the pile loops with the blade on its end.
Warp pile weave in double weaving technique is produced on special machines like a double fabric, whose two fabric sides are approx. 4 cm apart from each other. The pile warps standing vertically between upper and lower fabric are already cut in the middle on the weaving machine so that two independent velvet fabrics are created.
Weft pile weaves consist of a normal base and an additional weft system (the pile or nap weft) which has longer floats. The cutting open of the pile weft, which is lifted up from the base fabric by the pile needle, is carried out by rotating blades.
Fabrics with line-by-line or continuous bark-like effects are called seersucker. This effect can be obtained by either using a special type of weave or just through the binding.
Satin SE WV CO
The nearly unstructured, smooth fabric surface with a strong sheen (varying according to fibre and finish) is typical. The base is the satin weave in different variations with their long floats. Normally piece-dyed articles; but also for block stripes since it’s patterned only through the warp, a clear division of the colour fields is possible.
Serge are all flat, normally twill-woven fabrics that exhibit a slightly dull surface. Very often made from melanges or vigoureux yarns. An affordable flannel variation. Because serge almost always has a worsted base, it is tougher than real flannel. Used for skirt suits, suits and trousers.
The name shantung comes from the Chinese province of the same name. Its characteristic feature is the yarns with uneven structure (moiré, slubs) used in the weft. The warp is smooth, mostly organza yarn.
Rustic woollen yarn fabrics, mostly made from woollen yarn, in twill weave. The mélange colouring in the tones of the Scottish Highlands. Originally made of the coarser Cheviot wool, nowadays, the coarse look is imitated with coarsely spun out lambswool yarn which, of course, is much softer.
Embroidery St. Gallen Embroidery
Embroideries are the oldest and finest type of fabric adornments. Having been made exclusively by hand in the past, continuously more complicated high-tech machines have been developed years ago. A distinction is made between hand, warp stitch, hand-guided and Schiffli machines.
Most embroideries are done in the finest cotton. Evening wear embroidery also uses other fancy yarns.
Embroidery (Eyelet) or Broderie Anglaise
Eyelet motifs bound with stitches are the desired patterning effect. Raw base material is framed in a large embroidery machine, the contour of the eyelet embroidered, then the eyelets are gouged and finally bound with a fine satin stitch. Afterwards, the surface is smoothed by gassing (burning off of fibre ends).
Embroidery Etched / Guipure Embroidery
The various hand embroideries form the basis for the development of etched embroideries. A base fabric, mostly fine silk gauze, is embroidered with primarily cotton yarn and then dissolved in a chemical process. The embroidery appears to have been worked on air. Etched embroideries are used primarily in Haute Couture as well as for evening and wedding gowns.
Super 100, 120, 150
These terms are derived from the old English fineness designation for merino wool.
100s are approx. 16 microns. I.e., can be spun out as worsted yarn up to approx. Nm. 112.
150s / 180s are roughly equivalent to the fineness of cashmere, meaning 12/14 microns; although the wool fibres are significantly longer than cashmere. A super thin yarn that can be woven into very fine and light fabrics. Particularly in men's outerwear, this is used as a unique sign of quality. Thanks to the breeding of finest wool in a count range close to that of cashmere, primarily in New Zealand and Australia, and the use of cutting-edge spinning and weaving technology, it becomes possible to process the wool.
Strichtuch, Densely Fulled Loden
Has the same fabric construction as velour, but the hairs are napped (brushed) in one direction.
Silk fabric in tabby (plain) weave are called taffeta. This is a very fine, densely woven quality which has organzine yarn in the warp and weft. The slightly crisp, grainy feel is typical. Taffeta is sensitive to water and is extremely prone to creasing. Taffeta is always yarn-coloured, even when seeming plain-coloured. Taffeta always has a slight streakiness.
Polyester taffeta is offered as an affordable alternative.
Scottish families, as well as army troops, each have their own tartan (e.g. Black Watch, Royal Stewart) in various patterns, sizes and colours. In the past, these were made from fine woollen yarns. Today, they are made almost exclusively from coarser woollen yarns. Scotland has a register of all tartan variations.
General term for materials made based on synthetic fibres with a high percentage of lycra and used in the sportswear sector. Woven or as jersey.
See Non-Woven fabrics.
See Non-Woven fabrics.
Triacetate fabrics, just like the filament used to make them, are produced exclusively in Japan. They are characterised by extremely high wearing comfort (highly crease-resistant), great care properties as well as a pleasant drape and brilliant colours.
Tricot fabrics get their name from the tricot weave (derived from twill) that is used to make them. The very densely set fabrics exhibit a defined diagonal structure. They are produced primarily as piece-dyed articles or from melanges or vigoureux yarns, for men's outerwear. Even without elastane, they are relatively elastic in the weft direction. The first ski suits were made with tricot virgin wool fabrics.
Like fresco, this is a light, linen-woven fabric made from fine worsted yarn, almost exclusively piece-dyed. The clear weave pattern, the dull sheen of the surface and the grainy feel make tropical an ideal summer textile.
Woollen cloth is the term for the classic old woollen yarn qualities which, due to the fulling process, have an evenly clouded, hairy fabric appearance without perception of the weave. Mostly made from blended yarns, rarely plain-coloured.
This fabric, which was hand-woven in the past, received its name from the River Tweed in the Scottish Borders. In the past, the region had an important wool industry. It is a woollen yarn quality made of coarser wool and yarns. Always mélange-coloured, usually with slubs, moiré, and animal hairs.
The term tweed is rarely used on its own. Instead, it is usually used in combination with company names (Chanel tweed) or names of geographical regions (Sottish tweed, Irish tweed).
Twill WV / CO / SE
Always clear, relatively fine-threaded fabrics with a slightly thicker twill rib (e.g. cavalry twill or silk twill).
Velour is a very soft, elegant fabric. A distinction is made between standing pile velour and brushed velour, where the hairs are napped in one direction. Velour is spun from fine merino wool into woollen yarn and then woven as twill or double fabric. Its covering is produced by raising a nap. Mostly piece-dyed, but also mélange-coloured.
Also see Doubleface.
Viscose / Acetate
Used primarily for lining material, the different staining of these two fibres is used in order to obtain a two-coloured finish in one staining process (changéant). Beautiful, elegant sheen.
Voile CO / WV
Voile is a plain-weave fabric made from hard-twisted yarns with a brittle feel.
A general term for articles that repel water, due to their fabric construction and coating. From rain-proof to waterproof.
Whipcord is a piece-dyed, fine-threaded fabric with a pileless finish and a steep twill line; the weave is a steep-angled twill.
Also called faux lambskin. Consists of a raised base material with plush loops, similar to nicky. Depending on the length of the loop, the fabric can be produced with different pile heights. The final look is obtained through the finishing.
Wool fabrics weigh up to 300 g /rm.
Wool fabrics weigh over to 300 g /rm